The Science

ElleVet Leads The Way in Science and Research

CBD + CBDA Studies Conducted by ElleVet Sciences

The ElleVet Advantage: Science First

Why Hemp CBD + CBDA?

There are any number of products available that have been developed to help pets, and it can be hard to decide which is going to help your pet the most and which is the safest. It comes down to those two criteria and often a pet owner has to make the difficult choice of help over safety. We are changing this, so pets and pet parents can have both safety and extraordinary results.
Hemp CBD + CBDA has made a profound impact on veterinary medicine in the past 5 years and has changed the way veterinarians and pet parents think about managing discomfort, stress, itching, cognition, tremors, and many other issues. Becoming the first line of defense is what we at ElleVet have as a goal so that pets can receive the benefit and safety of hemp CBD + CBDA first, and not as a last-ditch effort. We have proven that our CBD + CBDA product works better than so many other, traditional options, and is extremely safe for pets. We hope ElleVet will soon become the first product that veterinarians reach for, and we believe our research and understanding of cannabinoids and the Endocannabinoid System will help us create better and better products for pets.

What is the Endocannabinoid System?

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an important system in the body of every mammal. The ECS is one of the largest receptor systems in the body. It functions both as an immunomodulatory and a neuromodulatory system and is essential for stress recovery as well as maintaining homeostasis in the body, or making sure everything is in balance. There is virtually no physiological or cognitive process that isn’t related in some manner to the ECS. The ECS is composed of endogenous lipid-based signaling molecules which bind to cannabinoid receptors. The body has many important systems that appear to be affected by “endocannabinoid tone” with the most work being done at understanding the endocannabinoids in the central nervous system and the immune systems. Somehow, the endocannabinoid system was unknown, overlooked, and generally not a part of the medical or veterinary school curriculum due to a lack of research in clinical patients, which explains why healthcare providers have not taken advantage of the vital role cannabinoids play in maintaining balance in the body. Simply put, whatever is out of balance, whether it be itching, an inflammatory response, discomfort, cognitive issues, the endocannabinoid system’s job is to address the imbalance and get back to normal. There is still much to be learned about the ECS and the full extent of its role, but understanding the function of the ECS is needed to understand how cannabinoids help to maintain a healthy body and mind. There are 3 parts to the ECS, which are endocannabinoids make by cells of the body, the receptors that these endocannabinoids bind to, and the enzymes that make and degrade these endocannabinoids in the body.

The Functions of the Endocannabinoid System

Perception of discomfort.

The body has a central nervous system and a peripheral nervous system which release excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters signaling discomfort, tremors and spasticity. Often when imbalanced there is a preponderance of excitatory neurotransmitter release. The ECS is able to re-balance the release of these excitatory transmissions and therefore reduces the body’s responses. This is helpful to understand why certain conditions involving spasms respond favorably to cannabinoids.

Inflammatory response

The Endocannabinoid System is able to modulate the inflammatory response by downregulating the production of inflammatory proteins and chemotaxis of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages or mast cells (for example). Modulating the inflammatory response is important in controlling conditions from joint discomfort to allergic reactions, and countless other circumstances.

How do Cannabinoids work with the Endocannabinoid System?

Cannabinoid receptors are G coupled protein receptors found throughout the body and brain, and cannabinoids, particularly the exogenous hemp-derived cannabinoid THC will bind with and stimulate these receptors. The body produces its own cannabinoids, called endocannabinoids, which are the endogenous lipids, anandamide and 2-AG are the primary endocannabinoids Anandamide is also known as the bliss molecule, and these are ligands for the cannabinoid receptors and will activate the receptors in order to maintain tight control of bodily functions. One example might be that when a body is overheated and sweating begins, that is the ECS regulating temperature. When phytocannabinoids, or cannabinoids from a plant such as hemp, are added, it is bringing in extra help to regulate and rein in whatever is out of balance by further activating the appropriate cannabinoid receptors. Interestingly, only the proper receptors are activated to address the specific issue, such as overheating, and other functions in the body are not subjected to overstimulation. This is helpful in understanding how CBD products such as ElleVet, can address multiple issues such as discomfort, stress, or cognitive issues.

Endocannabinoid System Receptors

There are several receptors involved with the ECS, the most well known of which are CB1 and CB2 receptors, but the TRPV1, GPR55, and PPAR though not traditionally thought to be part of the endocannabinoid system, but are intimately involved in the regulation of the endocannabinoid system and are often considered part of the ECS receptor system. As a whole, they are referred to as the endocannabinoidome. The activation of the endocannabinoidome protects the body from a wide variety of imbalances.

CB1 Receptor

The CB1 receptors are prevalent in the brain but can also be found in organs and tissues in the entire body. Activating the CB1 receptor is important as it suppresses neuronal excitability and the reduction of neurotransmitter release. It regulates processes such as those associated with inflammation, discomfort, memory, and appetite. CB1 receptor signaling is thought to be important in the extinction of adversive memories.

CB2

CB2 receptors are expressed in the immune system, the gastrointestinal system, and blood cells. They appear to mediate cytokine release and perform immunomodulatory functions. When these are activated they are effective at managing neuropathic discomfort, peripheral inflammatory responses, and sensitization.

TRPV

TRPV (transient receptor potential) or vanilloid receptors are primarily located in the nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system and regulates body temperature and have an important role in pain signaling.

PPAR

PPAR (peroxisome proliferation activation receptors) are a unique receptor found primarily in immune cells that are very sensitive to CBD and CBDA. When activated these receptors can help down-regulate inflammatory cytokines which are a significant part of the regulation of the immune response of certain white blood cells involved in the inflammatory response.

Enzymes

The third component of the ECS, along with endocannabinoids and receptors, are enzymes. Enzymes function to break down Anandamide and 2-AG so that overstimulation of the receptors does not occur, therefore assisting in maintaining balance. However, CBD or cannabidiol can inhibit anandamide breakdown by inhibiting the enzyme FAAH, or fatty acid amidohydrolase, which in turn can prolong and enhance its positive effects.

ECS Tone

ECS tone is essentially the baseline level of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-AG) in the body and the density and functioning of the cannabinoid receptors. When an ECS is working optimally, the body is in a state of physical and emotional balance, and when it is overactive or underactive, and therefore out of balance, the body reacts accordingly. An overactive ECS could manifest in inflammation, obesity, or diabetes. An underactive ECS can manifest as more severe IBS, migraines, or mood imbalance for example. Therefore the tone or the baseline state of health and balance of the ECS itself is a key to good health and wellbeing and has become a subject of great interest in terms of both addressing existing issues and boosting healthy “ECS tone” with a daily intake of cannabinoids.

Should CBD be taken daily for ECS Tone support?

In theory, taking CBD + CBDA daily would exercise the ECS and help create a healthy baseline or tone. Physical exercise and other positive lifestyle choices are thought to boost ECS tone and it would make sense that taking CBD daily would achieve the same type of effect. Daily CBD as a prophylactic measure is gaining popularity as the idea of helping the ECS to prevent conditions before they manifest is appealing. It is an area of great potential although further research is needed to determine the efficacy of this approach and the appropriate dosing. Would putting a younger dog on a moderate dose of CBD + CBDA daily help to keep them happy and healthy longer? Many pet owners believe so and any young dog with stress or itching that uses CBD + CBDA already could see long-term benefits in other areas which is an exciting new avenue of exploration in veterinary medicine.

What are Terpenes?

Terpenes are compounds found in hemp along with cannabinoids. Terpenes are mainly known for their scent, as they are what causes the distinctive hemp smell, although they are also responsible for other scents like lavender, hops, citrus, or pine. However, terpenes contribute more to hemp than just smell. They have potential anti-inflammatory properties, calming properties and can aid in sleep, respiration, and many other areas, so they are an important part of a full spectrum CBD + CBDA product. A good product will have a robust terpene profile, and the terpenes and cannabinoids work together in a synergistic way called the entourage effect. The entourage effect is essentially that each individual part is enhanced by the sum of the parts. Some of the most abundant terpenes are

  • Myrcene – the terpene usually present in the largest quantity, it is known for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is also volatile and care needs to be taken during the extraction process so that it doesn’t evaporate.
  • Limonene – as the name indicated, it has a lemony smell and is often used in cleaning or cosmetic products. It is known for its calming properties.
  • Alpha pinene – a pine tree smell and known for anti-inflammatory properties and for respiratory relief
  • Beta caryophyllene – a peppery smell, this terpene is known for anti-stress and anti-inflammatory properties
  • Humulene – an earthy smell and is also found in hops. This is thought to aid in memory and memory retention.
  • Linalool – this terpene is best known for its hemp smell and is also known for its calming and sedative properties

Terpenes are an important part of a good CBD + CBDA product and a strong smell, even if your pet might not appreciate it, can indicate a high-quality product! Currently, we have little evidence that the amounts found in CBD products have true clinical effects, but more importantly, besides the potential entourage effects, these terpenes act as natural anti-oxidants in our products to help with maintaining the long shelf life of our products.

This is how our CBD + CBDA works

Putting it all together, this is how ElleVet CBD + CBDA helps your pet:

There are complex explanations about the Endocannabinoid System, about the different components of the ECS and how your pet’s body responds to CBD, and many other scientific explanations regarding the use of CBD + CBDA. As a pet owner, what you really want to know is if CBD + CBDA is going to work for your pet, it is safe for your pet, and why it should be the product that you choose over all the other options.

When your senior pet is uncomfortable due to age-related joint issues, mental decline, and also has musculoskeletal problems like tremors you know your dog is uncomfortable and not experiencing a good quality of life. His endocannabinoid system is trying to address these issues and bring his body back to a state of comfort and balance but is unable to achieve this. You go to your veterinarian to discuss options to make your pet comfortable and happy, and she might suggest several different products to address his multiple issues, which come with potentially serious side effects and may or may not work. Your veterinarian also suggests taking ElleVet full spectrum CBD + CBDA which has been proven safe and proven to work in clinical trials. You decide to give your pet our recommended dose. Immediately the CBD + CBDA activates the ECS receptors in his body and his ECS is now able to lessen the perception of discomfort, lessen the excitatory process that causes tremors, improve mental acuity, and able to down-regulate the inflammatory response so your pet feels much better. This all occurs so quickly that in a matter of 2-5 days you see a noticeable improvement in comfort, happiness, and overall quality of life without side effects. It’s science, it’s not magic, and your dog is suddenly bounding up the stairs or brings an old toy out to play that you have not seen in years. This is because we have spent nearly 5 years on research to make sure your dog is getting the optimal dose, proper frequency of administration, and combination of cannabinoids and terpenes to give your dog a happy and healthy life because we think all pets deserve the best.

ElleVet is interested in working with Universities and Foundations on clinical trials using our products. All trials funded will be based on a cost-reimbursable basis with a maximum of 25% of indirect costs paid out, subject to contract terms and conditions.
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